QCOSTARICA – Of the 190,088 in Costa Rica who have received at least one dose of the covid-19 vaccine, 365 (0.2%) have reported adverse reactions
Data from the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social(CCSS) released this Friday indicate that 97% of these side effects have been mild and the remaining 3% moderate.
The most common effects reported have been pain at the injection site (22%), headache (13%), fever (9%), fatigue and tiredness (5%), as well as skin rash, pain in muscle and diarrhea (3%).
Severe allergic reactions
Although allergy reactions that requires treatment in the emergency room are very rare, the country has a protocol of care for them.
As explained by Shang Chieh Wu Hsieh, a doctor in the Comprehensive Care for People area, the most serious allergic reactions manifest with hives on the skin, swelling of the eyelids, lips and larynx, which can cause a sensation of suffocation.
This type of allergy is a response of the defense system, with extreme intensity and reflects a strong condition of the immune system, since it acts with a greater reaction than normal to a foreign substance to the body.
The greatest danger posed by an allergy is the so-called anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction that affects different body systems and can cause death from respiratory arrest.
Therefore, when there is an allergic reaction after being vaccinated, it is necessary to treat it with oxygen, an injection of epinephrine and monitoring to see its evolution.
The recommendation is that people who have had serious reactions and have needed doses of epinephrine in the past to report it to those in charge of vaccination, so that they are aware of possible effects.
In these cases, the individual stays longer in the clinic after the injection, to ensure that there are no immediate effects and to treat them if they do occur. This is because reactions usually appear after a few minutes.
In addition, those who have previously manifested a hypersensitivity reaction to any vaccine, must provide a certificate from their doctor indicating that they can be vaccinated. In these cases, it will be done in a medical center.
According to Wu, scientific studies have suggested that the allergic reaction is not due to the components of the vaccine itself, rather it appears to be related to a substance that is used as a vehicle for the vaccine molecules to flow through the body.
The clinical approach to these allergic reactions to the vaccine is the same as those caused by other sources, such as insect bites or stings, consumption of foods such as shellfish, and latex contact allergy.