Friday 2 June 2023

Why is important data inaccurate?

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This is the second article in our layperson’s series How Economic Data

In our first article, we described some of the inaccuracies:

  • Vested Interests – It may suit the agendas of those commissioning, preparing,
    and revealing economic information to deceive us for their own political,
    commercial, or personal ends.
  • Delays – Slow collection and analysis often delay information until is useless.
    This can be months or years. Estimates or wild guesses are made. These allow
    further manipulation.
  • International institutions create different numbers – The World Bank, the OECD,
    the IMF, and others have the same overarching concepts. Countries supplying
    them with information use widely different methods. Those publishing the
    information make estimates, manipulate, and interpret the inputs. Their
    statistics for individual countries can differ to the extent that they are
    misleading for international comparisons.
  • Sloppy and unqualified data collection – There are relatively few sophisticated,
    developed countries. The process of collection is questionable for much of the
  • Dubious measurements – Many economists argue that important statistics,
    especially Gross Domestic Product, GDP, are unsound. When doubtful numbers
    are used with others to calculate productivity or growth the results are grossly
    misleading. We will expand on this below.
  • Humans tend to use bad numbers when no others are available – This can lead
    to implementing wrong policies.

But why is this important data always inaccurate?

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Methods of collection

Absolute rulers simply publish the results by which they wish to be judged. In
democracies, common sources of conscious or unconscious bias include:

  • Easy to collect information (from income, VAT or import tax submissions,
    banking statistics, census records for example) can be wrong. Tax evasion and
    fraud are almost national sports in many countries. In poor countries, the
    unbanked often form the majority.
  • Surveys are used to calculate other information. Those designing and collating survey data have many ways to distort or manipulate the data.
  • For example: newspapers conduct su they reflect the politics and prejudices of readers rather than the entire population.
  • The wording and order of questions can suggest a desired response.
  • Varying response rates and sample changes over time make tracking changes difficult.
  • Paymasters influence the results. A sophisticated European country has a government-controlled unit to conduct official surveys and present the results. It also conducts surveys and creates further analyses when paid by third parties to do so. An analyst who works there explained: “We ask what they want to prove and ensure that they get what they pay for.”

Unsound GDP concepts

Politicians, businesses, charities, the media, and others quote Gross Domestic
Product figures daily to support their points of view. Common objectives may be to
prove: Why capitalism is better or worse than socialism; why being in or out of the
European Union makes sense; how much better country A is doing than B; or how a
particular government is performing.

  • GDP is defined as all consumer spending added to business investment, all
    government spending, and net exports. (Exports minus imports). It purports to be a
    measure of overall economic performance. However:
  • Depleting natural resources is not included. Countries increase GDP by mining,
    oil extraction, deforestation and other measures that might harm the
    environment. Coal mining and fracking, for example, contribute to US GDP.
  • Depending on culture, degree of sophistication and more, not all consumption
    is recorded. Reasons for this might include bartering; avoidance of sales taxes;
    spending on illegal substances; or perhaps purchases in remote locations
    unknown to the authorities.
  • Businesses have incentives to misclassify investment. In many countries,
    business investment is deductible from profit for tax purposes. This encourages
    over-reporting of investment. An investment bank I was with was asked to sell
    an Italian corporation. In this case, the business had no apparent profit,
    because it falsely charged its construction of an enormous plant as the cost of
    goods sold. This also meant that the balance sheet showed very little in fixed
    assets. We were astonished by the ultra-modern and huge factory. It was
    difficult to explain this to prospective buyers from more conservative countries.
    Potential buyers were being asked to pay for a business that had no apparent
    profit or assets.
  • Government spending can be good for the welfare of the people – or not.
    Officially, US spending on defence in 2023 will be $1.73 trillion. This does not
    include ‘Black Programs’, those funded from unofficial or secret sources. Views
    vary as to whether this level of spending contributes to national well-being.
  • The effectiveness of state spending varies. French and Chinese railways are
    more cost-effective than British ones. Singapore’s state-operated, airline, port,
    power generation and social housing compare with the best-run private
    enterprise operations internationally. Most state-owned enterprises do not.
  • The nature of trade is intriguing. Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, and most of
    Central America are notorious for the traffic of illegal drugs. Online publication attributed much of the recent strength of Costa Rica’s currency
    to drug cartel dollars passing through.
  • Work conducted on one’s own behalf is excluded from GDP figures, as too
    difficult to measure. This includes household chores, child rearing and more in
    the UK and USA. In poorer countries, it can dominate economic activity, for
    example building one’s own house or growing most of the food on a
  • The case of the Irish Republic deserves special mention. Over several decades,
    Ireland was able to attract inward investment by offering lower corporation
    taxes than other European Union countries. This led to major corporations
    investing in Ireland. Many paid their corporation taxes there by channelling
    royalty payments and profits through their Irish entities. In 2015 there was a
    single-year spike in the Irish GDP of an incredible 32%. Investigation indicated
    that major US technology corporations chose to realize their profits through the
    country in that year. There was no obvious benefit to Ireland of this huge
    increase in GDP,
  • The value of GDP does not allow for inflation without needed adjustments. By
    ignoring inflation, a country can claim it has grown and avoided recession when
    its economy has shrunk if inflation is considered. Arbitrary and complex
    adjustments to nominal GDP attempt to allow for such problems. Purchasing
    Power Parity, PPP tries to show what money can buy in a country. As an
    example, both China and the US spend a lot on defence. A Chinese tank or
    fighter aircraft costs a fraction of one in the US. The difficulties of estimating the
    technical and quality differences between these items are legion, with partisan
    arguments on both sides.
  • Apologists for the OECD, IMF and World Bank claim some commonality of
    approach and therefore some validity to the GDP data they publish. Given that
    all three are heavily dependent on US support and subject to political
    appointments, this assertion should be challenged.

GDP per capita

GDP forms the basis for another measure of economic success. Dividing the output
of an economy, (GDP), by the number of people living in a country provides data on
income per head.

It sounds simple enough.

However, how is income distributed across the population? Are a few families rich,
as was true of President Suharto’s Indonesia, and Marcos’s Philippines, or is the
wealth spread around? Finland and Slovenia are often given as examples. Everinventive economists have developed ways to try and measure wealth inequality.
Corrado Gini invented the Gini coefficient over 50 years ago. It measures the spread
of national income across the population. Unfortunately, it relies on the doubtful
accuracy of GDP data.

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Identifying how many people live in a country is critically important for GDP per
capita and the Gini Coefficient. This sounds simple but adds further inaccuracy to
economic statistics.

It is hard, but surprisingly common, to live outside the bureaucracy in sophisticated

Illegal immigrants and criminals may choose to do so.

There are countries with remote populations, rebel movements and poor
records of births and deaths. India is the largest one.

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India has surpassed China in population. Yet the Indian population is difficult to
determine. India, a country the size of Europe, with 21 recognized languages and
high corruption, began its last census in 2010. The next one has been delayed until
at least 2024.

With India’s fecundity and poor general education standards, the current population
estimate must be wildly speculative. As a result of all we have discussed, estimates
of India’s GDP per capita, growth and Gini coefficient seem meaningless.

Enter the Spooks

Those of us who needed to make international comparisons for business analysis
became increasingly frustrated by the lateness and inaccuracies of published data.

The CIA’s world ‘factbook’ is widely used.

This purports to compare countries in multiple dimensions. Besides data from the
IMF, OECD and World Bank the CIA has unique access to satellite images. They can
show harvest yields, view the details of natural resource extraction and
transportation. Secret viewing of the internal documents of other countries and
corporations is also available. Other nations deploy their own clandestine services
for similar purposes. Unfortunately, partisan motives make all such ‘facts’ of dubious

Let there be Light!

The quality of international measures of performance is so bad that some have
proposed radical improvements. Using light emissions from a country is interesting.

Many readers will have seen satellite pictures of poor North Korea in darkness
compared to prosperous South Korea’s night-time lights.

But there are many problems with this approach also:

Culturally some countries use more lights than others. Paris has lower light
emissions than Shanghai, yet the wealth of Paris is much higher.

The Leninist idea of focusing on electricity production for heavy manufacturing
rather than domestic consumption still influences some economies.

Though unlikely, perhaps Kim Yong-un has switched to being green.


The main methods used to measure economic performance are deeply flawed.
They become more so when countries are compared.

GDP and its manipulations are widely used as a basis for absolute performance
by a country. Overlaid with dubious population numbers to estimate average
wealth in an economy creates further distortions.

Variations in GDP over time are used to measure economic growth, an
obsession among many. The same objections to compounding errors apply.

Future articles

Trade between nations has been a major source of world development. In recent
times, sanctions, wars, and nationalistic policies have disrupted the flow of goods
and services. We will explore the problems of information on trade and currency

Nobel laureates and famous economists have tried to resolve the problems of false
performance measures. They have challenged the obsession with output, growth,
and productivity. Various ways of measuring ‘happiness’ and ‘well-being’ are now in
vogue. We will review the problems they present.

About the author:

Chris Clarke has degrees in economics and management from the UK. He is a past chairman of the Strategic Planning Society. Working around the globe, he held leadership and partnership positions in strategic consulting, corporate finance, and advisory services. He was based in Europe, Asia, and the US, before moving to Central America. On a pro bono basis, Chris was a visiting professor at Henley Management College. He taught senior executives in Asia and Europe. For some years he also ran courses in M&A and corporate strategy for Management Centre Europe

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Chris Clarke
Chris Clarke writes thrillers under the name Aaron Aalborg and has retired to Costa Rica from New York and bought a house here 6 years ago. His career included international banking. He has degrees in economics and management. In earlier lives he was a Catholic trainee monk; a radical student activist, a Royal Marine Commando, a businessman, a partner in a consulting firm, a professor at a UK business school, an Investment banker and the CEO of a global executive search firm. He has lived in Europe, Asia, New York and Latin America.

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